Round-robin tournament A round-robin tournament is a competition in which each contestant meets all other contestants in turn. A round-robin contrasts with an elimination tournament, in which participants are eliminated after a certain number of losses; the term round-robin is derived from the French term ruban, meaning "ribbon".
Over a long period of time, the term was idiomized to robin. In a single round-robin schedule, each participant plays every other participant once. If each participant plays all others twice, this is called a double round-robin; the term is used when all participants play one another more than twice, is never used when one participant plays others an unequal number of times.
In the United Kingdom , a round-robin tournament is called an American tournament in sports such as tennis or billiards which have knockout tournaments.
In Italian it is called girone all'italiana.
In Serbian it is called the Berger system, after chess player Johann Berger. A round-robin tournament with four players is sometimes called "quad" or "foursome". In sports with a large number of competitive matches per season, double round-robins are common.
Most association football leagues in the world are organized on a double round-robin basis, in which every team plays all others in its league once at home and once away; this system is used in qualification for major tournaments such as the FIFA World Cup and the continental tournaments.
There are round-robin bridge, draughts , go, curling and Scrabble tournaments; the World Chess Championship decided in and in on an eight-player double round-robin tournament where each player faces every other player once as white and once as black.
Group tournaments rankings go by number of matches won and drawn, with any of a variety of tiebreaker criteria.
Pool stages within a wider tournament are conducted on a round-robin basis. Season ending tennis tournaments use a round robin format prior to the semi on stages The champion, in a round-robin tournament, is the contestant that wins the most games.
In the circle of death, it is possible that no champion emerges from a round-robin tournament if there is no draw.
In theory, a round-robin tournament is the fairest way to determine the champion from among a known and fixed number of contestants; each contestant, whether player or team, has equal chances against all other opponents because there is no prior seeding of contestants that will preclude a match between any given pair.
The element of luck is seen to be reduced as compared to a knockout system since one or two bad performances need not cripple a competitor's chance of ultimate victory.
Final records of participants are more accurate as they represent the results over a longer period against the same opposition.
This can be used to determine which teams are the poorest performers and thus subject to relegation if the format is used in a multi-tiered league; this is helpful to determine the final rank of all competitors, from strongest to weakest, for purposes of qualification for another stage or competition as well as for prize money.
In team sport the major league champions are regarded as the "best" team in the land, rather than the cup winners. Moreover, in tournaments such as the FIFA or ICC world cups, a first round stage consisting of a number of mini round robins between groups of 4 teams guards against the possibility of a team travelling thousands of miles only to be eliminated after just one poor performance in a straight knockout system; the top one, two, or three teams in these groups proceed to a straight knockout stage for the remainder of the tournament.
Round-robins can suffer from being too long compared to other tournament types, with scheduled games not having any substantial meaning.
They may require tiebreaking procedures. Swiss system tournaments attempt to combine elements of the round-robin and elimination formats, to provide a worthy champion using fewer rounds than a round-robin, while allowing draws and losses; the main disadvantage of a round robin tournament is the time needed to complete it.
Unlike a knockout tournament where half of the participants are eliminated after each round, a round robin requires one round less than the number of participants if the number of participants is and as many rounds as participants if the number of participants is odd. For instance, a tournament of 16 teams can be completed in just 4 rounds in a knockout format.